Stem Cell


Hyperbaric Stem Cell Definitions

Adult stem cells

Undifferentiated cells (these include the various types of multipotent and unipotent stem cells), found in a differentiated tissue of the developed, adult organism. These cells can renew themselves and differentiate (with certain limitations) to give rise to all the specialized cell types of the tissue they derive from. Adult stem cells can be found in bone marrow or in the umbilical cord blood of newborn babies.

Bone marrow stem cell

Multipotent stem cells from bone marrow; types include haematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

CD34-positive cells

CD34 refers to a special molecular structure that can be found on the surface of haematopoietic stem cells. With the help of this marker, the haematopoietic precursors can be differentiated from other precursors. CD is the abbreviation of “cluster of differentiation”.

Cell-based therapies

See: Regenerative medicine

Clone

To generate identical copies of a molecule, cell, or organism.

Cord blood stem cells

The vessels of the umbilical cord during and shortly after delivery contain stem cells. These stem cells are in the blood at the time of delivery, because they move from the liver, where blood formation takes place during foetal life, to the bone marrow, where blood is made after birth. Umbilical cord stem cells are similar to the stem cells that reside in bone marrow, and can be used for the treatment of leukaemia and other diseases of the blood.

Differentiation

The process whereby an undifferentiated embryonic cell acquires the features of a specialized cell such as the liver, brain, heart or muscle cell.

Embryo

The product of a fertilized egg. This term extends from the time of fertilization (zygote) until it becomes a foetus, which in the human is approximately eight weeks later.

Haematopoietic stem cell

Precursor of mature blood cells

In vitro

Latin for “in glass”. Names processes that take place or are done in a laboratory dish, test tubes or other artificial environments.

Mesenchymal stem cells

Also known as bone marrow stromal cells. Mixed group of cells from the non-blood-forming section of bone marrow. Mesenchymal stem cells are capable of growth and differentiation into a number of different cell types.

Multipotent

The ability of an individual stem cell to develop into only a limited range of cell types. In general, adult stem cells are multipotent. Also see pluripotent and totipotent.

Plasticity

The ability of stem cells from a particular type of tissue to give rise to cell types of another type of tissue.

Pluripotent

The ability of an individual stem cell to develop into numerous other types of cells. In general, embryonic stem cells are pluripotent.

Regenerative medicine

A treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cell populations.

Stem cells

Cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells.

Tissue Engineering

Tissue Engineering refers to the production of tissue constructions from endogenous somatic cells. Stem cells or other differentiated somatic cells are used for the construction. In this way, tissue (such as skin or cartilage) can be grown outside the body and then transplanted to the patient.

Totipotent

Type of cell that can form an entire organism. The zygote (a fertilized egg) and the first four cells produced by its cleavage are totipotent.

Unipotent

Usually applied to cells in adult organisms that are capable of differentiating along only one lineage.

Below is a link to a study done on balding and stem cell inactivation

http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/News_Releases/2011/01/male-pattern-balding-stem-cell-inactivation/

Hyperbaric Stem Cell Definitions